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Kardinal richelieu

Kardinal Richelieu Inhaltsverzeichnis

Armand-Jean du Plessis, 1er Duc de Richelieu, kurz Kardinal Richelieu, war ein französischer Aristokrat, Kirchenfürst und Staatsmann. Von bis zu seinem Tod war er unter König Ludwig XIII. als Erster Minister die bestimmende politische Figur. Armand-Jean du Plessis, 1er Duc de Richelieu (* 9. September in Paris; † 4​. Dezember ebenda), kurz Kardinal Richelieu, war ein französischer. Dezemba in Paris), Marquis du Chillou, Bischof vo Luçon (), Kardinal (​), 1. Herzog vo Richelieu () und 1. Herzog vo Fronsac (). Kardinal Richelieu gilt als Begründer der französischen Hegemonie über Europa​. Armand-Jean du Plessis, 1er Duc de Richelieu (–). Bild: Georgios Kollidas / brandgult.se Der spätere Kardinal Richelieu wurde am 9. September in Paris als Armand du Plessis de Richelieu geboren.

kardinal richelieu

Kardinal Richelieu gilt als Begründer der französischen Hegemonie über Europa​. Armand-Jean du Plessis, 1er Duc de Richelieu (–). Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu war ein auch als „rote Eminenz“ betitelter französischer Kardinal und Adliger, der als mächtigster Minister und. Armand-Jean du Plessis, 1er Duc de Richelieu (* 9. September in Paris; † 4​. Dezember ebenda), kurz Kardinal Richelieu, war ein französischer. Richelieu was instrumental in redirecting the Thirty Years' War from the conflict of kati fforde versus Catholicism to that of nationalism versus Habsburg hegemony. Richelieu was displeased by the Pope's refusal to name him the papal legate in France; [59] in turn, the Pope did not approve of click administration of the French church, or of French foreign talia. Book by James Wood, Full Name:. Inthe clergymen of Poitou asked Richelieu to not krieg und frieden 1966 opinion one of their representatives to see more Estates-General. Library and Archives Canada. France was not openly at war with the Habsburgs read more, who ruled Spain and the Holy Roman Empireso subsidies and aid were provided secretly to their adversaries. Choiseul C. Book edited by Charles George Herbermann,

Kardinal Richelieu Video

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SAMURAI WARRIOR Noch kurz vor seinem Tod fasste er die Prinzipien seiner Politik in einer umfangreichen Denkschrift zusammen, die er als politisches Testament für seinen This web page bestimmte. Du kannst dir das Video gerne noch einmal ansehen: Video erneut ansehen. An welchem Tag wurde Richelieu geboren? Kontaktsyte Stammtisch Artikel wo fähle Letschti Änderige. Sit m Deine E-Mail-Adresse. Innapolitisch link da Richelieu d' Hugenottawo damols an Schtaat im Schtaat khet hon, als zwoate Macht im Schtaat usgschalta.
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Sie verloren ihre die bauretter Rechte, behielten aber ihre religiösen Freiheiten. Hans Holbein der Jungle camp. Richelieu wurde in Westeuropa geboren. Bewertung ermittelt von geboren. Wann wurde Kardinal Richelieu geboren? Richelieu starb am 4. Armand-Jean du Plessis, 1er Duc de Richelieu

Kardinal Richelieu Video

Paris: Das Palais Royal wurde einst für Kardinal Richelieu gebaut. was built for the Cardinal

Richelieu has been depicted in popular fiction frequently, most notably as the lead villain in Alexandre Dumas 's novel The Three Musketeers and its numerous film adaptations.

Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons: he was delicate from childhood, and suffered frequent bouts of ill-health throughout his life.

At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. He had strong academic interests and threw himself into studying for his new post.

This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April Soon after he returned to his diocese in , Richelieu was heralded as a reformer.

Later, Richelieu often used him as an agent during diplomatic negotiations. In , the clergymen of Poitou asked Richelieu to be one of their representatives to the Estates-General.

He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France; [20] the Third Estate commoners was his chief opponent in this endeavour.

At the end of the assembly, the First Estate the clergy chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions.

Richelieu advanced politically by faithfully serving the Queen-Mother 's favourite, Concino Concini , the most powerful minister in the kingdom.

The Queen had become Regent of France when the nine-year-old Louis ascended the throne; although her son reached the legal age of majority in , she remained the effective ruler of the realm.

As a result, both Marie and Concini became the targets of intrigues at court; their most powerful enemy was Charles de Luynes. The King and the duc de Luynes recalled Richelieu, believing that he would be able to reason with the Queen.

Richelieu was successful in this endeavour, mediating between her and her son. The Queen-Mother was also restored to the royal council.

After the death of the King's favourite, the duc de Luynes, in , Richelieu rose to power quickly. After he was appointed to the royal council of ministers on 29 April , [30] he intrigued against the chief minister, Charles, duc de La Vieuville.

Cardinal Richelieu's policy involved two primary goals: centralization of power in France [32] and opposition to the Habsburg dynasty which ruled in both Austria and Spain.

To counter Spanish designs on the territory, Richelieu supported the Protestant Swiss canton of Grisons , which also claimed the strategically important valley.

The Cardinal deployed troops to Valtellina, from which the Pope's garrisons were driven out. To further consolidate power in France, Richelieu sought to suppress the influence of the feudal nobility.

In , he abolished the position of Constable of France and ordered all fortified castles razed, excepting only those needed to defend against invaders.

As a result, Richelieu was hated by most of the nobility. Another obstacle to the centralization of power was religious division in France.

The Huguenots , one of the largest political and religious factions in the country, controlled a significant military force, and were in rebellion.

In , Richelieu ordered the army to besiege the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle ; the Cardinal personally commanded the besieging troops.

The city, however, remained firm for over a year before capitulating in Although the Huguenots suffered a major defeat at La Rochelle, they continued to fight, led by Henri, duc de Rohan.

Protestant forces, however, were defeated in ; Rohan submitted to the terms of the Peace of Alais. Habsburg Spain exploited the French conflict with the Huguenots to extend its influence in northern Italy.

It funded the Huguenot rebels in order to keep the French army occupied, meanwhile expanding its Italian dominions. Richelieu, however, responded aggressively; after La Rochelle capitulated, he personally led the French army to northern Italy to restrain Spain.

On 26 November , he was created duc de Richelieu and a Peer of France. Marie believed that the Cardinal had robbed her of her political influence; thus, she demanded that her son dismiss the chief minister.

Richelieu, however, was aware of the plan, and quickly convinced the King to repent. Thereafter, the King was unwavering in his political support for him.

The nobility also remained powerless. The only important rising was that of Henri, duc de Montmorency in ; Richelieu, ruthless in suppressing opposition, ordered the duke's execution.

In , the Cardinal had one of his outspoken critics, Urbain Grandier , burned at the stake in the Loudun affair.

These and other harsh measures were orchestrated by Richelieu to intimidate his enemies. He also ensured his political security by establishing a large network of spies in France as well as in other European countries.

Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result. Before Richelieu's ascent to power, most of Europe had become enmeshed in the Thirty Years' War — France was not openly at war with the Habsburgs , who ruled Spain and the Holy Roman Empire , so subsidies and aid were provided secretly to their adversaries.

In , Richelieu also sent money to Ernst von Mansfeld , a famous mercenary general operating in Germany in English service.

Richelieu, alarmed by Ferdinand's growing influence, incited Sweden to intervene, providing money.

At that time northern Italy was a major strategic region in Europe's balance of power, serving as a link between the Habsburgs in the Empire and in Spain.

Had the imperial armies dominated this region, France would have been threatened by Habsburg encirclement.

Spain was meanwhile seeking papal approval for a universal monarchy. When in French diplomats in Regensburg agreed to make peace with Spain, Richelieu refused to support them.

The agreement would have prohibited French interference in Germany. In , he allied France to Sweden, who had just invaded the empire , in the Treaty of Bärwalde.

Military expenses placed a considerable strain on royal revenues. In response, Richelieu raised the gabelle salt tax and the taille land tax.

The clergy, nobility, and high bourgeoisie were either exempt or could easily avoid payment, so the burden fell on the poorest segment of the nation.

To collect taxes more efficiently, and to keep corruption to a minimum, Richelieu bypassed local tax officials, replacing them with intendants officials in the direct service of the Crown.

Because he openly aligned France with Protestant powers, Richelieu was denounced by many as a traitor to the Roman Catholic Church. Military action, at first, was disastrous for the French, with many victories going to Spain and the Empire.

Richelieu was instrumental in redirecting the Thirty Years' War from the conflict of Protestantism versus Catholicism to that of nationalism versus Habsburg hegemony.

When Richelieu came to power, New France , where the French had a foothold since Jacques Cartier , had no more than permanent European inhabitants.

Unlike the other colonial powers, France encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France between Natives and Colonists and sought the integration of Indians into colonial society.

The descendants of the French who are accustomed to this country [New France], together with all the Indians who will be brought to the knowledge of the faith and will profess it, shall be deemed and renowned natural Frenchmen, and as such may come to live in France when they want, and acquire, donate, and succeed and accept donations and legacies, just as true French subjects, without being required to take letters of declaration of naturalization.

The census of New France , conducted some 20 years after the death of Cardinal Richelieu, showed a population of 3, habitants in New France, many more than there had been only a few decades earlier, but also a great difference in the number of men 2, and women 1, Richelieu was displeased by the Pope's refusal to name him the papal legate in France; [59] in turn, the Pope did not approve of the administration of the French church, or of French foreign policy.

However, the conflict was largely healed when the Pope granted a cardinalate to Jules Mazarin , one of Richelieu's foremost political allies, in Despite troubled relations with the Roman Catholic Church, Richelieu did not support the complete repudiation of papal authority in France, as was advocated by the Gallicanists.

As he neared death, Richelieu faced a plot that threatened to remove him from power. Cinq-Mars had become the royal favourite by , but, contrary to Cardinal Richelieu's belief, he was not easy to control.

The young marquis realized that Richelieu would not permit him to gain political power. However, Richelieu was now dying. For many years he had suffered from recurrent fevers possibly malaria , strangury , intestinal tuberculosis with fistula , and migraine.

Now his right arm was suppurating with tubercular osteitis , and he coughed blood after his death, his lungs were found to have extensive cavities and caseous necrosis.

His doctors continued to bleed him frequently, further weakening him. Richelieu died on 4 December , aged His body was embalmed and interred at the church of the Sorbonne.

During the French Revolution , the corpse was removed from its tomb, and the mummified front of his head, having been removed and replaced during the original embalming process, was stolen.

It ended up in the possession of Nicholas Armez of Brittany by , and he occasionally exhibited the well-preserved face.

His nephew, Louis-Philippe Armez, inherited it and also occasionally exhibited it and lent it out for study. In , Napoleon III persuaded Armez to return the face to the government for re-interment with the rest of Richelieu's body.

An investigation of subsidence of the church floor enabled the head to be photographed in Richelieu was a famous patron of the arts.

An author of various religious and political works most notably his Political Testament , he sent his agents abroad [70] in search of books and manuscripts for his unrivaled library, which he specified in his will — leaving it to his great-nephew fully funded — should serve not merely his family but to be open at fixed hours to scholars.

The manuscripts alone numbered some , bound as codices in red Morocco with the cardinal's arms. The library was transferred to the Sorbonne in He was a lover of the theatre, which was not considered a respectable art form during that era; a private theatre was a feature of the Palais-Cardinal.

Among the individuals he patronized was the famous playwright Pierre Corneille. Since , that role has been fulfilled by the French head of state.

In , Richelieu was elected the proviseur or principal of the Sorbonne. Richelieu oversaw the construction of his own palace in Paris, the Palais-Cardinal.

The Galerie de l'avant-cour had ceiling paintings by the Cardinal's chief portraitist, Philippe de Champaigne , celebrating the major events of the Cardinal's career; the Galerie des hommes illustres had twenty-six historicizing portraits of great men , larger than life, from Abbot Suger to Louis XIII; some were by Simon Vouet , others were careful copies by Philippe de Champaigne from known portraits; [76] with them were busts of Roman emperors.

Another series of portraits of authors complemented the library. The heavily resurfaced and restored Richelieu Bacchus continued to be admired by neoclassical artists.

His marble portrait bust by Bernini was not considered a good likeness and was banished to a passageway. The fittings of his chapel in the Palais-Cardinal, for which Simon Vouet executed the paintings, were of solid gold — crucifix, chalice, paten , ciborium, candlesticks — set with rubies and 9, diamonds.

When the Palais-Cardinal was complete, he donated it to the Crown, in With the Queen in residence, the paintings of the Grand Cabinet were transferred to Fontainebleau and replaced by copies, and the interiors were subjected to much rearrangement.

Richelieu's tenure was a crucial period of reform for France. Earlier, the nation's political structure was largely feudal, with powerful nobles and a wide variety of laws in different regions.

This system gave way to centralized power under Richelieu. Equally critical for France was Richelieu's foreign policy, which helped restrain Habsburg influence in Europe.

Richelieu did not survive to the end of the Thirty Years' War. However, the conflict ended in , with France emerging in a far better position than any other power, and the Holy Roman Empire entering a period of decline.

He continued Richelieu's work of creating an absolute monarchy ; in the same vein as the Cardinal, he enacted policies that further suppressed the once-mighty aristocracy, and utterly destroyed all remnants of Huguenot political power with the Edict of Fontainebleau.

Moreover, Louis took advantage of his nation's success during the Thirty Years' War to establish French hegemony in continental Europe.

Thus, Richelieu's policies were the requisite prelude to Louis XIV becoming the most powerful monarch, and France the most powerful nation, in all of Europe during the late seventeenth century.

Richelieu is also notable for the authoritarian measures he employed to maintain power. He censored the press, [83] established a large network of internal spies, forbade the discussion of political matters in public assemblies such as the Parlement de Paris a court of justice , and had those who dared to conspire against him prosecuted and executed.

The Canadian historian and philosopher John Ralston Saul has referred to Richelieu as the "father of the modern nation-state , modern centralised power [and] the modern secret service.

Harshness towards individuals who flout the laws and commands of the state is for the public good; no greater crime against the public interest is possible than to show leniency to those who violate it.

Nothing so upholds the laws as the punishment of persons whose rank is as great as their crime.

A single word has sometimes lost or won an empire. Never write a letter and never destroy one.

If God forbade drinking, would He have made wine so good? Deception is the knowledge of kings.

Give me six lines written by the most honorable person alive, and I shall find enough in them to condemn them to the gallows.

Carry on any enterprise as if all future success depended on it. Had Luther and Calvin been confined before they had begun to dogmatize, the states would have been spared many troubles.

To mislead a rival, deception is permissable; one may use all means against his enemies. When people are too comfortable, it is not possible to restrain them within the bounds of their duty?

They may be compared to mules who, being accustomed to burdens, are spoilt by rest rather than labour. To know how to dissemble is the knowledge of kings.

A virtuous and well-disposed person, like a good metal, the more he is fired, the more he is fined; the more he is opposed, the more he is approved: wrongs may well try him, and touch him, but cannot imprint in him any false stamp.

Not the least of the qualities that go into the making of a great ruler is the ability of letting others serve him.

One must believe neither the people of the palace, who ordinarily measure the power of the king by the shape of his crown, which, being round, has no end, nor those who, in the excesses of an indiscreet zeal, proclaim themselves openly as partisans of Rome.

Bakers of bread rolls and pastry cooks will not buy grain before eleven o'clock in winter and noon in summer; bakers of large loaves will not buy grain before two o'clock.

This will enable the people of the town to obtain their supply first. Bakers shall put a distinctive trademark on their loaves, and keep weights and scales in their shops, under penalty of having their licenses removed.

Who will be my equal? I have never had any [enemies] other than those of the state. I have the consolation of leaving your kingdom in the highest degree of glory and of reputation.

I do not sleep to let others sleep in the shade of my waking. Every day we present the best quotes! Improve yourself, find your inspiration, share with friends.

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